Monday, October 31, 2016

'I'm not my hair': Breast cancer patient fights for her right to be bald

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Chewing on Taste: A Philosophical Reflection


If you are reading this article, it is quite safe to assume you may be more or less interested in food, and that at some point you may have reflected on how you relate to it, whether you enjoy, fear it, or even abhor it, whether it is a source of gratification or anxiety. Italian philosopher Nicola Perullo's new book, Taste as Experience: The Philosophy and Aesthetic of Food, tries to provide some elements of reflection to improve - or at least relax - the way we interact with food. In fact, its goal is to "make philosophy with food rather than of food," proposing a "transformational interrogation and not only a descriptive one."

The main topic of the book is not food per se, but rather our experience and what we think of it: that is to say, taste. Although Perullo hints at long-standing debates in the history of philosophy about the topic, his motivation is the present and how we approach food on a daily basis. He points out that "taste becomes a measure for recognizing quality and expressing values: the beautiful and the ugly, the good and the bad." This approach underlines that taste can be about displaying ones' cultural and social identity as much as judging others' positions. It allows the performance of know-how and expertise or, at the other end of the spectrum, the proud display of one's refusal to engage with gastronomy's high-minded perspective, often suffered as a tool of exclusion and, ultimately, classism.

Food knowledge is not purely theoretical but both embodied ("it originates and develops in and through the body") and negotiated with others in numerous communal settings. From this point of view, "taste should function as an antenna designed to capture meanings and values of different orders, aesthetic, ethical, political, and social." It demands "criteria, values and judgment... shared through socially coded patterns of behavior and a correspondent grammar." Even the aesthetic appreciation of food may require training and education, as wine connoisseurship clearly indicates.

At the same time, Perullo argues, there are other dimensions to the practice of taste. There is an undercurrent aspect that is not so much about competence and analysis, but rather the domain of what the author calls "naked pleasure" (as opposed to the "dressed taste" of knowledge) and individual preference, free from rational fetters. In other occurrences, food can merely provide nourishment: in those cases, we may be more or less indifferent to what we eat and what it tastes likes, attuned rather to our own hunger, the company, or myriad other internal and external factors. This "suspension of taste," the author underlines, is not negative per se. It rather provides a baseline for other experiences.

These different manifestations of taste point to the need to consider it as a flexible, contextual tool that depends on the environment and the situations in which it is employed. Perullo describes it as a "systemically holistic' and a "multimodal ecological device." In layman's terms, it's up to us to understand when it's best to use one or the other dimension of taste. For Perullo, being able to do this is to achieve "gustative wisdom:" we can't always be just looking for unbridled enjoyment, nor constantly acting as supercilious critics, and even less continuously being distracted about what we eat. We are invited to learn to live fully in all three dimensions, making ourselves open to the outside world. After all, what we ingest does become part of us.

By exploring the different aspects of taste, the author tries to distance himself from the kind of foodie culture that emphasizes food in pure hedonistic terms and pushes aside social or political issues connected to it. After all, Perullo has been teaching for years at the University of Gastronomic Sciences in Bra, Italy, an institution founded by the international association Slow Food, whose activities strives toward "good, clean, and fair" food for everyone. The book is engaging and packed with stimulating thoughts and tidbits to chew on (pun intended, of course). It does require attention due both to language and content. It has been beautifully translated from the Italian original, which is not an easy achievement. As English and Italian diverge in the way they structure sentences and build arguments, their differences can lay innumerable traps in rendering a philosophical text. Even when the theme is food.


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Close up of the new mineral merelaniite

The scroll-like structure of the newly discovered mineral merelaniite grows into tiny, silver-gray whiskers. A physicist has found the mineral on a sample of larger minerals from the Merelani Mining District in Tanzania.

Toddlers' Hospitalizations For Opioid Poisoning Tripled Over 15 Years

By Ike Swetlitz

Easy access to opioids has harmed even society's youngest members: The number of children and teenagers hospitalized for painkiller poisoning has doubled in recent decades, according to a study published Monday.

Why it matters:

This is the first study to look at national hospitalization rates among children and adolescents for opioid poisonings.

"I'm really happy to see that the authors have looked at the potential consequences of prescription opioid availability for adolescents and children," said Robert Bossarte, director of the West Virginia University Injury Control Research Center. "There's been so much focus on the prescription opioid epidemic among adults, and the overdose rate among adults."

There are a few reasons for that focus, researchers said. A larger number of adults have been dying from opioid overdoses than children have, so they attract more media attention. And adults are usually the ones getting the pills from the pharmacies, so policies targeted at preventing the illicit spread of opioids focus more on adults.

The nitty gritty:

Researchers examined a database of hospitalization data on children, aptly named KID -- Kids' Inpatient Database -- that now covers 44 different states. Using ICD-9 codes, which describe the reason the patient is in the hospital, researchers were able to identify the number of opioid poisonings. They split the data up into age groups and calculated how the hospitalization rates changed over time.

The study found that hospitalizations for opioid poisoning among 15 to 19-year-olds rose by about 176 percent from 1997 to 2012, and for 1 to 4-year-olds, the rate rose by an even greater 205 percent. The study was published in JAMA Pediatrics.

But keep in mind:

ICD-9 codes only capture a limited amount of information about the patient -- what drug they took (opium, methadone, and "other opiates and narcotics") and whether it was intentional or unintentional (or if the doctors aren't sure). The researchers didn't know where the children were getting the painkillers -- from a parent's medicine cabinet, from a friend, or from a pharmacy.

What they're saying:

"It's another study that highlights the dangers of opioids," said Mark Edlund, a senior public health analyst at the nonprofit research group RTI International. And it won't be the last. After the Food and Drug Administration's decision last year to approve OxyContin for certain types of cancer pain in teens, Edlund said, "it will be very interesting to see what happens to opioid prescribing among children and adolescents."

Bottom line:

More and more children are ending up in the hospital because of opioid poisoning -- and only time and more research can tell if that trend will continue.

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7 Invaluable Lessons From The World's Best Cookie Baker

Dorie Greenspan is quite possibly the world's best cookie maker. She has been baking ― with a serious interest in cookies ― for over 30 years. She ran a beloved cookie shop with her son, a self-proclaimed cookie monster, in NYC. And she has just released a beautiful tome dedicated entirely to cookies aptly named Dorie's Cookies.

She knows baking, too. She knows it matters if you whisk your eggs and sugar together for two minutes versus five minutes ― you'll get a whole different dessert. But more importantly, she knows how happy baked goods make people. She says, “Baking is an act of generosity, an act of love.” She's right, it is.

Originally from Brooklyn, Greenspan currently has three homes: one in NYC, one in Connecticut and one in Paris, France. Clearly, she knows how to live.

So if you're going to get baking advice from anyone in the world, Dorie is the person. Ditto for life lessons. 

We read her newest book, Dorie's Cookies, like a novel, unable to put it down. It was filled with 170 perfect cookies recipes, and anecdotes about them. There were lots of lessons woven into the pages of this book. We outlined our favorites for you below.

Read them up, and then go buy her new book. It'll will serve you for the rest of your years ― in and out of the kitchen.

1. You're not the only one worried about pronouncing rugelach right. Dorie herself, the cookie master, couldn't get it straight so she just renamed them “Friendship Cookies.” Why? Because whoever she serves them to wants to follow her home and be her best friend, she says.

2. Stack your baking sheets for a makeshift insulated cookie sheet. Some cookie recipes call for insulated baking sheets because the dough is sensitive and the bottoms can burn easily in the oven while the tops are still baking. Dorie shares that there's no need to invest in an insulated baking sheet if you don't already have one ― just stack two sheets on top of one another.

3. Forget everything you've been taught about rolling cookies, and roll out the dough BEFORE you refrigerate it. Many recipes will tell you to chill the dough and then roll it out. The only problem with this order of things is that chilled dough is harder to roll, and waiting for the dough to warm up a bit can be a chore. Dorie assures us the dough doesn't care when it gets its rest in the fridge, so long as it rests. This means we can roll the dough before chilling it, sandwiched between parchment paper, making the task infinitely easier.

4. One chocolate chip cookie recipe in your arsenal is not enough. In fact, Dorie says, “Recipes for chocolate chip cookies are like scarves ― you're always happy to have a new one.”  We really do love scarves, and chocolate chip cookies, and the fact that Dorie just gets us.

5. You don't need all the proper tools to bake good cookies, but having the proper tools increases the joy of baking. Dorie has done it both ways, and recommends investing in some good baking tools. You don't need to go overboard and buy every tool at Williams-Sonoma, but go for quality equipment ― like a stand mixer, oven thermometer and scale. They'll last you forever and make the act of baking much more enjoyable. 

6. If you come up with a baking recipe while dreaming in your sleep, you should absolutely get up and bake it. That's how Dorie came up with her famous Jammer cookies, one of the most beautiful and most delicious cookies to grace this planet.

7. Don't be afraid to think outside the box. Most people mix chocolate chips into their cookie dough. Dorie has a recipe that wraps a little bit of cookie dough around a single chocolate chip to make perfect bite-sized cookies for when you need a little something. It's a genius way to rethink a classic ― and it's proof that, as Dorie says, “the cookie-verse is infinite.”

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11-year-old brain cancer survivor kills herself after being 'bullied'

… girl from Ohio, who survived brain cancer as a toddler, is thought …

Study identifies molecule that limits excessive expansion of heart muscle cells

A research team has identified a protein that stops heart muscle cells from increasing in size when the heart is under stress, representing a candidate for treating a range of heart diseases.

The Many Benefits Of Self-Compassion

Our sense of self is often a divided thing. Most of us have a side in us that is "on our own team." It encourages and supports us. It helps us fight for what we want and believes in what we can achieve. However, there is often an opposite force in each of us that is pretty much our worst enemy. It insults, critiques, questions, and undermines us. It keeps us from pursuing our goals and punishes us for our mistakes. This is the side of us that my father, Dr. Robert Firestone has called the "anti-self."

In my and my father's work, we often talk about how and why this anti-self emerges and how to challenge the negative line of thinking it perpetuates, which we call the "critical inner voice." One exercise we ask people to try is writing down their self-critical thoughts in the second person (i.e. "You are such a loser. You can't get anything right.") We then suggest people write down a more realistic and compassionate response to these thoughts, the way one might respond to a friend saying these things about themselves. We ask that people write these statements in the first person (i.e. I am not a loser. I have many strengths, and I don't have to beat myself up when I make a mistake.")

The second part of this exercise can be very challenging and unexpectedly emotional for people. It's often difficult to stand up to our critical inner voices; particularly when so many of us struggle with low self-esteem. Input from others is often perceived as additional criticism, and can trigger us and set off even more critical inner voices; our responses may range from being victimized or overly defensive to exaggerating and needing to build ourselves up. The attitude we need to adopt in order to stand up to our inner critic is one that is scientifically proven to be highly beneficial to our overall mental health and well-being. That attitude is self-compassion.

Dr. Kristin Neff
is a leading researcher on self-compassion. This November, I'll have the honor of speaking to Dr. Neff in a one-hour Webinar about her extensive findings on the many benefits of self-compassion, some of which I will highlight in this blog. Dr. Neff's research has shown that, in many ways, self-compassion is more beneficial than self-esteem to our psychological well-being. In comparison to self-esteem, self-compassion is associated with "greater emotional resilience, more accurate self-concepts, more caring relationship behavior, as well as less narcissism and reactive anger." Unlike self-esteem, self-compassion is not based on self-evaluation or judgment in general. Self-esteem can be problematic, because it's often contingent on what we accomplish. It can rise and fall with our successes and failures and provide just the fuel we need to rev up our critical inner voice. In contrast, self-compassion involves a consistent attitude of kindness and acceptance toward ourselves as a whole. As Dr. Neff writes, "People feel compassion for themselves, because all human beings deserve compassion and understanding, not because they possess some particular set of traits."

According to Dr. Neff, self-compassion involves three main elements:

  1. Self-kindness Vs. Self-judgment

  2. Mindfulness Vs. Over-identification with thoughts

  3. Common humanity Vs. Isolation

Adopting these attitudes leads to many rewards. By fostering self-kindness, we can steer away from judging ourselves too harshly, and we can return to this attitude any time life doesn't go exactly our way. "We can't always get what we want. We can't always be who we want to be," said Dr. Neff. "When this reality is denied or resisted, suffering arises in the form of stress, frustration and self-criticism. When this reality is accepted with benevolence, however, we generate positive emotions of kindness and care that help us cope."

By practicing mindfulness, we reduce our tendency to ruminate on problems or negative forms of thinking that are not conducive to real growth or change. The practice of self-compassion can help us avoid the trappings of the self-limiting or destructive thought processes, like the critical inner voice, that often diminish our motivation or initiative. Dr. Neff's findings show that self-compassion can reduce anxiety and actually help us to make real changes in our lives.

Finally, by promoting a sense of common humanity, we can stop seeing ourselves from a victimized or narcissistic vantage point. Instead we can accept the reality described by Dr. Neff:

All humans suffer. The very definition of being 'human' means that one is mortal, vulnerable and imperfect. Therefore, self-compassion involves recognizing that suffering and personal inadequacy is part of the shared human experience -- something that we all go through rather than being something that happens to 'me' alone.

The rewards of self-compassion are so extensive and can be explored in greater detail in Dr. Neff's book, Self-Compassion. Some of Dr. Neff's key findings show that self-compassion has a significant positive association with:

  • Happiness

  • Optimism

  • Positive affect

  • Wisdom

  • Personal initiative

  • Curiosity and exploration

  • Agreeableness

  • Conscientiousness

  • Extroversion

In each of our lifetimes, we will be faced with struggles, big and small, internal and external. The pursuit of self-compassion allows us to face these obstacles with a sense that, not only are we on our own team, but we are very much a part of a larger team. We can have feeling for our inherent value, while addressing the things we seek to change. We can learn to tune out the critical inner voice that holds us back and establish a healthy and authentic sense of self.

Learn more about "Self-Compassion," a Webinar with Dr. Kristin Neff.

Read more from Dr. Lisa Firestone at

Read more about self-compassion at

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Cell extrusion mechanisms: Making sure to expel an unwanted cell

An international collaboration of researchers has revealed how epithelial cell extrusion is regulated by cell density, explains a new report.

What To Do With Those Leftover Seeds From Your Carved Pumpkin

There aren't many great solutions for minimizing the waste created by jack-o-lanterns. They can't really become food after serving their Halloween purpose. (The FDA advises not eating pumpkins after they've been sitting out on your porch, especially after there's been a candle burning inside.)

One option is to compost your jack-o-lantern instead of trashing the spent pumpkins ― at least that'll put nutrients back into the soil. Another idea is to do something with the pumpkin seeds you scoop out of the cavity. (And in a perfect world, you'll do both.)

When you carve your pumpkin this year, separate the seeds from the stringy flesh, wash them and keep them (if that's confusing to you, watch the video below). You'll have a raw ingredient on your hands with infinite culinary possibilities. One tried and true recipe to make with raw pumpkin seeds is to simply roast them.

You can keep them simple and just roast them in olive oil and salt ― like food blogger Simply Recipes does with her classic recipe. You can take it up a notch and roast those seeds with bacon, if you're feeling particularly carnivorous. (We have that recipe for you below.) Or you can roast the pumpkin seeds and use them in a recipe as a star ingredient.

Whatever you do, just don't throw them out ― make one of these recipes instead.

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Achilles Tendon Rupture

The Achilles tendon is the thickest and strongest tendon within the body; although occasionally it is exposed to stresses which make is susceptible to injury (Figure 1). Injuries to the Achilles tendon commonly occur when forces placed on the tendon exceed its tensile limits.


The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord that connects the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscles to the calcaneal tuberosity (heel bone) (Figure 2).


Common causes of injury to the Achilles tendon include repetitive or sudden increase of stress on the tendon, an increase is exercise intensity, not allowing for recovery time between exercises, a decreased range of motion due to tightening calf muscles and/or bone spurs which cause rubbing against the tendon (Figure 3).


The two most common types of Achilles tendon problems are Achilles tendonitis and an Achilles tendon rupture (Figure 4).


Tendonitis involving the Achilles tendon is painful and often debilitating (Figure 5). Chronic inflammation of the Achilles tendon is due to stresses and micro-tears and is also a result inflammation and scar formation. Achilles tendonitis usually leads to pain in the back of the heel and the occasional swelling due to thickening of the tendon. This often occurs in athletes such as runners. Treatment for Achilles tendonitis includes anti-inflammatory medication, physical therapy (utilizing the active release technique), massage therapy, ice, immobilization and injections. The techniques for injections often include prolotherapy, platelets and needling. These techniques for injections are performed with or without ultrasound guidance; however they are still in the investigative phase. It is advised not to inject steroids directly into the tendon. The goal of treating Achilles tendonitis is the reduce stress on the tendon. In rare or difficult cases surgery is sometimes needed.


Rupture of the Achilles tendon can be either partial or complete (Figure 6). A rupture of the tendon may occur suddenly without warning or as a result of tendonitis.


What happens when the tendon ruptures?

The patient will feel or hear a "POP" when the tendon ruptures (Figure 7). There will be pain felt in the back of the ankle, and the foot will become floppy and weak. Finally, the patient feels as if they were being kicked in the back of the ankle where the tendon snapped.


The Thompson test is a clinical evaluation test used to assess the integrity of the Achilles tendon (Figure 8). With the patient lying prone on the examination table, the examiner will squeeze the calf muscles of the affected leg. Slight plantar flexion of the ankle is a normal response to this examination when there is no rupture. However, if the Achilles tendon is ruptured, plantar flexion or movement of the ankle in response to the squeezing of the calf muscles will not occur (silent ankle not connected to the calf muscles).


Surgery is done by exposing the torn tendon through an incision in the skin (Figure 9). The ends of the tendon are cleaned and approximated. Once the tendon has been cleaned, repair of the ruptured tendon can be done with sutures. The Thompson test is once again performed to check the integrity of the Achilles tendon after repair.


A cast or splint is used for four to six weeks post-operatively. Then physical therapy is initiated.

For more information on the Achilles Tendon, click below:

For more information, visit my YouTube Channel:

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New sperm research could lead to cut in infertility rate

Sperm and mathematics don't appear to be the likeliest of bedfellows, but new research bringing the two together could lead to devices that could cut infertility rates.

Here's Some Unlikely Advice From Anthony Bourdain's 'Appetites'

For Bon Appetit, by Amanda Shapiro.

Anthony Bourdain's new cookbook, Appetites, is all the foods he cooks at home, for his wife, his daughter and their friends. You'll find refreshingly easy recipes for scrambled eggs, tuna salad and macaroni and cheese, along with more exciting offerings like British-Style Pheasant with Bread Sauce, Ma Po Tripe and Pork (with 20 ingredients including MSG), oh, and A LOT of strong opinions. We're not sure that we're sold on the Thanksgiving “stunt turkey” - a small bird to show off to your guests while you carve the unphotogenic “business turkey” - but we admit we're intrigued. Here are 11 more pieces of unlikely advice from the man we never want to be predictable.

1. “If you ever need to deliver a baby unexpectedly, just reach for a nearby New York Times Styles section. You can be pretty sure nobody has touched that.”

2. “God does not want you to put chicken on your Caesar.”

3. “Always keep some pigs in the blanket in the freezer.”

4. “If you're putting mesclun or baby arugula on your burger... Guantánamo Bay would not be an unreasonable punishment.”

5. “If you add truffle oil [to your macaroni and cheese], which is made from a petroleum-based chemical additive and the crushed dreams of 90s culinary mediocrity, you should basically be punched in the kidneys.”

6. “It's a myth that you need to boil fresh or dried lasagne noodles before baking the whole thing.”

'Everyone should know how to roast a chicken. It's a life lesson that should be taught to small children at school.'

7. “Everyone should know how to roast a chicken. It's a life lesson that should be taught to small children at school.”

8. “Put those goddamn marshmallows away.” (On the subject of sweet potatoes.)

9. “My mom's meat loaf is inarguably better than yours.”

10. “No beans, no rice - chili should be about the meat and the peppers.”

11. “F*ck dessert.”

Related: Anthony Bourdain Thinks You're Crazy for Eating Airplane Food

Appetites is out this week from Ecco.

More from Bon Appetit:

When Life Hands You Lemons, Make These Lemon Desserts

No-Cook Pasta Sauces You Should Have Up Your Sleeve at All Times

Gooey, Gorgeous Cheese Recipes

35 Make-Ahead Breakfasts so You Can Sleep in and Eat Well All Week

Our 50 Favorite Weeknight Dinners

24 Recipes Everyone Should Know How to Cook

-- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

Selecta Biosciences Collaborators at the National Cancer Institute Present Preclinical Data Showing SVP-Rapamycin Application to Cancer Therapy

… , is overexpressed in mesothelioma, pancreatic, ovarian and lung cancers.  Dr. … prevent and treat cancer, infections and other diseases. Selecta is … of The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. … factors discussed in the “Risk Factors” section of the …

Few children born to parents with serious mental illness live with both parents while growing up

Serious mental illness such as depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia has been shown to affect relationships and parenting capabilities. Children of parents with serious mental illness are vulnerable, and therefore comprehensive knowledge about their life circumstances is warranted for public health strategies to provide helpful supportive services.

​How Coffee Works To Boost Your Productivity


Productivity is a subject that is highly discussed in offices and among company culture proponents around the globe. Being the humans that we are, we often become dependent on external factors and stimulants for the required dose of productivity needed to get us into work mode.

This is an issue coffee so aptly resolves. However, it's important to pay attention to the right amount -- and, indeed, the right quality of caffeinated drink we consume. Without understanding how taking coffee affects your body and help boost productivity, the knowledge of what type of caffeine juice that gets your brain active might remain clumsy.

Given, a good proportion of the workforce rely on coffee for almost everything work related. In a report, 46 percent of America's workforce say coffee helps them stay productive at work. In another survey, 20 percent of people who drink coffee say it helps them socialize.

Gayo Kopi, makers of the rarest and most expensive coffee in the world, have some tips on how coffee boosts our productivity. I was privileged to get to talk with Jeff Bickley about what makes coffee so important for productivity, and indeed our all round wellness.

Coffee Improves Alertness Level

"Being alert helps us to stay productive during work. Coffee intake improves our cognitive ability by putting a stop to adenosine production," says Jeff Bickley.

Adenosine is a substance the brain produces, mostly during sleep, which causes our body to feel weak and averse to work. Jeff Bickley says coffee works to stop this substance from infiltrating the whole body system by replacing it with caffeine which makes us alert and productive.

Kopi Luwak coffee is said to be even more refined as the coffee berries are selected by the Asian Palm Civet - cousin to the mongoose. The civet then passes the beans through its excrement after it has spent two days in its digestive tract.

"The enzymatic process the beans undergo while in the digestive system of the civet accomplishes two things; it removes the bitterness normally associated with coffee, and also infuses flavorful notes of other jungle fruits that make up the animal's diet. The coffee is then processed by artisans who take great care to see that only the highest quality beans are delivered to our clientele," Jeff Bickley says.

Given that the Gayo Kopi brand of coffee is the most expensive coffee on earth, there's definitely going to be something different about it.

Coffee Strengthens the Brain

While most people guzzle down their coffee, the last thing they think of is what it does to the brain. However, the effect coffee has on brain functions is very positive.

By keeping your brain safe from stress-inducing hormones by releasing kahweol and cafestol - anti-inflammatory agents found in the oil in coffee, drinking coffee regularly will protect your brain and strengthen it.

Jeff Bickley says it protects the brain from oxidative stress and DNA damage.

"DNA damage can occur in humans through exposure to certain amorphous silica nanoparticles. The oils found in coffee helps protect the brain against these stressors and strengthens its ability to withstand exposure to stress,"Jeff Bickley said.

Coffee Gives Us Energy Boost

Several research works on coffee have shown that caffeine is a great source of energy boost for the body. This in effect contributes to an increased productivity boost.

The energy boosting effect coffee has on drinkers is not limited to the physical body alone. Findings have shown that creativity - which is an activity that takes place in the mind as well as the ability to make sound judgment can be traced to drinking coffee.

Coffee Helps You to Socialize Better

For entrepreneurs and employees who regularly create products and work in a group setting, coffee makes it easier to bond. Jeff Bickley said "Simply holding a cup of coffee allows you to relax and appear more approachable. Discussing how the most expensive coffee in the world is made works wonders for breaking the ice in your workplace."

Research has also shown that people who drink coffee in the workplace are able to form better social interactions among their colleagues - an important factor that can help drive productivity. So taking a coffee break, while discussing how funny it sounds for Asian Palm Civets to produce the most expensive coffee in the world, can sure help you and your co-workers create more meaningful bonds.

(Image Source)

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Here's How To Drain Pasta Without A Colander

For Bon Appetit, by Elyssa Goldberg.

Sure, your apartment clocks in at approximately three square feet with no windows and, okay, there's practically no cabinet space to speak of. But it's your first apartment! This is big city living! That also means you have limited kitchen tools at your disposal. Like, why get a colander? Why should you buy a large metal bowl with lots of small holes in it? That takes up precious storage real estate? Don't think so. A little secret: Senior food editor Rick Martinez confirms that you don't actually need that colander - that it's more of a “nice to have” than a “need to have.” So, when the time comes for you to fish pasta or blanched vegetables out of a pot of boiling water, here are your options:

1. Tongs (or a Fork). Let's say you're relatively thoughtful about stocking your kitchen and bought tongs. When you're cooking spaghetti or other long pasta, those tongs can be used to snatch a spaghetti bundle out of the water. If you don't have tongs, you can absolutely use a fork. But beware: It will take forever to remove individual strains of spaghetti from bubbly hot water.

2. Spoon. Do not try this on longer, stringier pastas. Use a spoon (the largest one you have) for small pasta, beans, and blanched vegetables only. Scoop what you want, then cradle the edge of the spoon against the pot and tilt slightly to drain. It takes a while, but it works.

3. Slotted Spoon or Spider. Better yet, watch all the water seep out through a spoon that's just a mini-colander (because, holes). (The same could be said for a strainer, but since that's basically a handheld colander, we're not talking about it here.)

4. The Lid. Yes, sometimes draining water is as easy as using the lid. Martinez has a few words of advice, should you choose to go down this road. Leave the lid slightly askew, about ¼ inch. Hold the lid down with insulated oven mitts. Make sure to hold the pot away from you as you pour-otherwise you risk steam burns. Pour out the water and let the lid catch your food.

Safety first; colanders later.

More from Bon Appetit:

When Life Hands You Lemons, Make These Lemon Desserts

No-Cook Pasta Sauces You Should Have Up Your Sleeve at All Times

Gooey, Gorgeous Cheese Recipes

35 Make-Ahead Breakfasts so You Can Sleep in and Eat Well All Week

Our 50 Favorite Weeknight Dinners

24 Recipes Everyone Should Know How to Cook

-- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

Research into extreme weather effects may explain recent butterfly decline

Increasingly frequent extreme weather events could threaten butterfly populations in the UK and could be the cause of recently reported butterfly population crashes, according to research.

The Top 10 Workout Songs For November 2016


Flickr: Kohlmann Sascha

This month's top 10 workout songs span a wider tempo range then normal--with the fastest song clocking at more than double the speed of the slowest. Moreover, that's just the beginning of this playlist's variety. So, with no further ado, let's get into the mix.

On the lower end of the spectrum, you'll find new tunes from The Weeknd and Lady Gaga that are perfect for warming up, cooling down, and stretching. At the other end, you'll find lightning fast tracks from Green Day and Dagny that will give you an extra boost mid-routine. Those tracks alone incorporate country touches, Scandinavian melodies, pop punk,and Daft Punk. Elsewhere, you can find remixes from Ellie Goulding and The Chainsmokers alongside soundtrack hits by Years & Years (from Bridget Jones' Baby) and Christina Aguilera (from The Get Down).

Whatever your tastes, new faves await. When you're ready to make tracks, here's the full top 10 list--according to the votes logged on workout music site Run Hundred.

  • Christina Aguilera & Nile Rodgers - Telepathy (Rare Candy Radio Mix) - 123 BPM

  • The Weeknd & Daft Punk - Starboy - 93 BPM

  • Green Day - Revolution Radio - 180 BPM

  • The Chainsmokers & Halsey - Closer (Wuki Remix) - 108 BPM

  • Dagny - Ultraviolet - 150 BPM

  • Lady Gaga - A-YO - 75 BPM

  • Years & Years - Meteorite - 120 BPM

  • Maroon 5 & Kendrick Lamar - Don't Wanna Know - 100 BPM

  • Bruno Mars - 24k Magic - 107 BPM

  • Ellie Goulding - Still Falling for You (Jonas Blue Remix) - 123 BPM

Check out this month's top 10 workout songs on Run Hundred:

For more by Chris Lawhorn, click here.

For more from HuffPost Workouts, click here.

Also on HuffPost:

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A Coffee Expert Gets Real About Why You Should Ditch Your Keurig

By Eva Hill and Cait Munro

Despite the indisputable convenience of the Keurig, the ubiquitous one-cup coffeemaker has received its fair share of backlash from coffee connoisseurs and environmentalists alike. Here's how Ed Kaufmann, director of roasting at Joe, feels about the matter.

More from Grub Street:

Why Starbucks Is Doubling Down on Fancy Coffee

This New Coffee Shop Charges Customers by the Minute

Is Coffee Going Extinct?

Why Iced Coffee Is So Much More Expensive Than Hot Coffee

This Machine Prints Beautiful Images on Your Coffee

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Share A Laugh With Your Kids

There's so much stress and pressure on parents and kids today, we forget our sense of humor. We need to have fun time with our kids so they become resilient, enjoyable, and find time with us as pleasant, loving people who are great to spend time with.

10 Tips on Sharing Humor with Your Kids

1. Tell "dad jokes"

2. Tell "mom jokes"

3. Leave funny notes in their lunchboxes

4. Send funny texts during the day

5. Share funny youtubes

6. Send funny emails now and then

7. Turn something that feels excessively worrisome into something with better perspective that you can then even have a laugh about

8. Find humor in mishaps and mistakes

9. Laugh at yourself when you do something ridiculous

10. Depending on the age of your child, chase around the house and play hide and seek.

Once you and your kids get the hang of it, a good sense of humor becomes part of their personalities and you remember to keep this pleasure as part of your lives.. Be careful that this funny banter doesn't turn into making fun of each other which leads to hurt feelings and unwise teasing.

Learn the boundaries between having fun and having fun at someone's expense. That will help your kids not only enjoy family life but give them the skills for making good friends.

A good sense of humor can follow you throughout your life giving you a keen perspective on unnecessary struggles. It can ease the tension when there are unexpected changes in your and your kids' lives.

It's really not so easy to be very funny. Comics will tell you that they work hard at pleasing their audiences. But we don't have to be expert stand-up comics to enjoy each other. Be careful it doesn't turn into a contest about who is the funniest. Then there could be sibling rivalry at who has the best or last laugh.

The idea is to find the time to keep things light by sharing an extra message of love with humor.


Laurie Hollman, Ph.D. is a psychoanalyst and author of Unlocking Parental Intelligence: Finding Meaning in Your Child's Life found on Amazon, Barnes and Noble, Familius and wherever books are sold. Visit her on her website:

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How Bloody Veggie Burgers Fool Your Senses

By Cari Romm

It seems meat-free meat is having a moment. Earlier this month, Tyson Foods - “one of America's most carnivorous companies,” Vice noted - announced that it plans to invest in Beyond Meat, one of two companies making plant-based patties that look like beef, smell like beef, even bleed like beef. The Beyond Burger hit Whole Foods shelves in May; Impossible Foods' Impossible Burger debuted at David Chang's Momofuku Nishi over the summer.

Related: The Absolute Best Veggie Burger in New York

Up until now, these products were regarded mainly as curiosities, but Tyson's involvement could be a hint that imitation meat is moving from fringe-y novelty to something more, just as veggie burgers did in the later decades of the 20th century. Compared to their veggie-burger predecessors, though, these new meatless creations require a newer, more complicated alchemy: The challenge now isn't just to please the senses, creating some enjoyable mishmash of ingredients in patty form; it's to fool the senses, a task that requires an acute understanding of the way humans experience their food.

A few of the weapons in fake-meat manufacturers' arsenal include a focusing on their products' fat content (some scientists believe fat may be a taste in its own right, up there with sweetness and bitterness) and a molecule called heme, found in animal blood and certain plants, that's responsible for giving burgers their faint iron-y tinge. But here's an important thing to know: What we call “taste” is actually flavor, a sensation caused by our taste buds and smell receptors working in tandem. So interwoven are taste and smell, in fact, that some scientists are currently working on manipulating the odor of healthy food products to make them taste more like junk food, minus the calories. A meatlike meatless burger, then, first and foremost has to smell like meat. 

What we call 'taste' is actually flavor, a sensation caused by our taste buds and smell receptors working in tandem.

And “meat” is not one unified smell - it's the result of a staggering number of chemical compounds, each with their own odor, playing off and reacting to one another. “The smell of meat is the simultaneous exposure to these hundreds of different smells,” Patrick Brown, a former Stanford biochemist and the founder of Impossible Foods, told NPR in an interview earlier this year. To figure out exactly what their burger should smell like, Brown said, he and his colleagues put beef into a chromatography mass spectrometry machine, which sorts and isolates chemical compounds; among other things, they detected whiffs of butter, syrup, and even used diapers. (That last one sounds slightly horrifying, but not all food smells are things we'd consider pleasant on their own - some wine experts say that Sauvignon Blanc, for example, bears a striking olfactory resemblance to cat pee.)

Flavor isn't just smell and taste - it's texture, too, meaning a convincing imitation has to re-create the chewy, crumbly feel of a mouthful of ground beef. Manufacturers have to consider protein, fat, moisture, and heating temperatures, all of which subtly help to make a burger what it is. A New York feature last year explained Impossible Foods' multistep process for manufacturing burger texture: “proteins centrifuged from liquefied soy, wheat, and spinach and reassembled to mimic the fibrosity and tensile strength of a steer's connective tissue,” plus “muscle replica, fresh from a KitchenAid's meat grinder: fluffy, pale-pink clumps of proteins from the same three crops, isolated because they could form fleshlike gels.”

Related: Why Veggie Burgers Are Poised to Be the Country's Most Exciting New Burgers

It may sound obvious, but a burger imitation also has to look like a burger - which is why this advanced fake meat, as it cooks, goes from red to pink to brown. Vision is often the first sense we use to process food, and first impressions are hard to shake. It sounds almost unbearably pretentious when they say it on Top Chef, but you really do eat with your eyes. If the look is wrong, it's easy to get turned off before you even have a chance to taste (in one well-known study on the psychology of disgust, most people presented with a poop-shaped piece of chocolate refused to eat it, even though they knew it was just dessert). Hence the fake burgers' bleeding, a seemingly superfluous flourish that actually goes a long way toward simulating authenticity.

But while imitation-meat burgers are playing catch-up to the real thing, they may have one advantage that regular beef burgers don't: ecofriendliness, an abstract concept that plays out on the plate in very real ways. Eating according to your conscience can influence a food's flavor - research has shown, for example, that humanely raised meat tastes better when it comes from humanely raised animals than when it's been factory-farmed.

And all meat, it's worth noting, tastes better with a slice of cheese melted on top, a fact the imitation-meat industry hasn't overlooked: The team behind Impossible Burger is apparently working on a similarly high-tech plant-based American cheese, shooting for a near-exact replica of the real (gooey, salty, melty) thing.

More from Science of Us:

Adding Fake Smells to Healthy Food Can Convince Your Brain You're Eating Junk

Scientists Have Found a 'Sixth Taste,' and It's the Reason Why Pasta Is Delicious

It's Pretty Hard to Put a Smell Into Words

The Weird Connections Between Hearing and Taste

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Sunlight And Pollution: A Dangerous Combination For Our Skin

Human skin is constantly assaulted by the external environment, protecting us from air, Ultraviolet radiation (UVR), environmental pollutants, and other mechanical and chemical insults, all of which have been piled into the coined term "exposome," to describe the entirety of exposures to which an individual is subjected. The skin's ability to protect us can be easily impaired by numerous factors such as psychological stress, alcohol and illicit drug intake, and poor nutrition, all of which further allow external factors to do harm by creating free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Now truth be told, the greatest focus is often on UVR, which is the major contributor to this injury. Our skin can combat UVR through both its inherent protective tools(melanin, urocanic acid, and enzymatic antioxidants) and antioxidants we consume from the food (vitamin A, C, E, etc.), but these can be depleted with use and age, not to mention other environmental villains like pollution. In fact, a very recent study indicates that exposure to increased ground levels of ozone for example, may be associated with increase wrinkle formation in the face, even independent of sun exposure. When I say ozone, I am not referring to stratospheric ozone in the upper atmosphere that is beneficial because it protects from solar radiation. Ground level or tropospheric ozone is the accumulation of gaseous emissions from cars and chemical plants. Nitrogen oxide and organic compounds in these emissions interact with sunlight to become highly reactive (not a good thing). Although we often think of ground ozone in association with large cities or industrial areas the reality is that many Americans live in areas with unhealthy levels of ozone.

The skin is, of course, exposed to this ground level ozone, and there is growing evidence that confirms that this exposure has detrimental effects on the skin such as premature skin aging and increased sensitivity . Regular contact with ozone depletes antioxidants from the stratum corneum, the top layer of the skin . Ozone also increases damage to key fats and proteins in the skin, called lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation respectively, suggesting multiple way by which ozone and even soot (a mixture of carbon particles and organic compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons ) we come into contact on a daily basis can 1. Damage our skin and 2. Further facilitate the damage incurred by UVR exposure by depleting out defenses. Overall, there is good epidemiological evidence that exposure to traffic-related air pollution including such as Nitrogen Dioxide and ground level ozone as well as cigarette smoke is associated with increased pigment spots and wrinkle formation, aka accelerated skin aging, in multiple ethnicities such as Caucasians and East Asians.

So what to do about this? Well first things first, we must continue to be vigilant with proper sunprotection regiments which include:

1. Applying a SPF 30 or higher sunscreen, with or without antioxidants, to exposed areas every single day. Specific to this discussion, it will also prevent sunreactive pollutants from reacting upon UV exposure.

2. Reapply after bathing, swimming, exercising, or if outdoors for extended periods of time

3. Use protective clothing such as hats and sunglasses as sunscreen is not enough

4. Seek shade when possible

5. Don't assume windows protect - they only filter one half of the story, UVB, but lets UVA, the type that does not cause a clinical sun burn but sure burns your DNA, have at your skin.

What about the pollution? Good question. Here's where we need to rely on our friends in industry to create mutli-functional products that can both protect us form the sun and pollution. In the meantime, strategies to reduce pollution particle load on the skin are helpful. These include the use of rinse-off products to remove pollution from the skin and 'anti- stick' topical products which make particles slip off the skin. It is still important to avoid over cleansing which can further disrupt the skin barrier. Second, the use of moisturizers to preserve and restore skin barrier function will help prevent additional damage and exposure to harmful pollutants.

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Structure of toxic tau aggregates determines type of dementia, rate of progression

The distinct structures of toxic protein aggregates that form in degenerating brains determine which type of dementia will occur, which regions of brain will be affected, and how quickly the disease will spread, according to a study.

Zika Virus May Affect Male Fertility, According To Study On Mice

CHICAGO (Reuters) - A study of mice infected with Zika showed the virus caused lasting damage to key cells in the male reproductive system, resulting in shrunken testicles, lower levels of sex hormones and reduced fertility, U.S. researchers said on Monday.

So far, the findings are only in mice, but the result is worrisome enough to warrant further study because of possible implications for people, said Dr. Michael Diamond of Washington University in St. Louis, whose research was published in the journal Nature.

”It has to be corroborated,” Diamond, a professor of pathology, immunology and molecular microbiology, said in a telephone interview.

Much of the global effort to fight Zika has focused on protecting pregnant women from infection because of the grave implications for their unborn children.

Zika infections in pregnant women have been shown to cause microcephaly, a severe birth defect in which the head and brain are undersized, as well as other brain abnormalities.

Previous studies have shown that Zika can remain in semen for as long as six months. But little is known about whether prolonged exposure to the virus in the testes can cause harm.

To study this, Diamond and colleagues injected male mice with Zika. After a week, the researchers recovered infectious virus from the testes and sperm, and they found evidence of viral genes in certain cells of the testes. But overall, the testes appeared normal compared with other lab mice.

After three weeks, however, the differences were stark. The testes in the Zika-infected mice had shrunk to a tenth of their normal size, and the internal structure was destroyed.

”We saw significant evidence of destruction of the seminiferous tubules, which are important for generating new sperm,” Diamond said.

The researchers also found that Zika infects and kills Sertoli cells, which maintain the barrier between the bloodstream and the testes and foster sperm growth. Sertoli cells do not regenerate.

That raises the specter of long-lasting damage.

”The virus is infecting a site which doesn't really renew if it gets damaged. That is the problem,” Diamond said.

Tests of testicular function showed sperm counts, sex hormones and fertility had dropped. Infected mice were four times less likely to impregnate a healthy female mouse than healthy males.

”This is the only virus I know of that causes such severe symptoms of infertility,” added Dr. Kelle Moley, a fertility specialist at Washington University and a study co-author.

There is no vaccine or treatment for Zika.

(Reporting by Julie Steenhuysen; Editing by Will Dunham)

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Women Try Orgasming In Three Minutes Or Less

Research shows that women who masturbate regularly are healthier ― both physically and emotionally. Sometimes, though, hitting the spot takes a little longer than we'd like it to.

In the BuzzFeed video above, a few women test out the Womanizer, a sex toy whose manufacturer claims that 80 percent of users orgasm after two to three minutes of use. 

It's a bold promise ― but does this bad boy really get the job done? Watch the clip above to see, then check out some other sex therapist-approved sex toys in the slideshow below. 

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Research Uncovers Some Very Good News For Facebook Fans

There's been plenty of research that says people who have strong social networks ― family and friends ― live longer. But do Facebook friends count in that tally?

A UC San Diego study of 12 million Facebook users says they do with one caveat: This happens only when Facebook helps you reinforce and enhance your real-world connections. In other words, “likes” from strangers really don't matter.

The study ― which the researchers say is an association study and cannot identify causation ― was just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

In an era where many of us spend more time online and less time with our real-life friends, the research documents for the first time that what occurs online in terms of social interaction may matter. 

“Interacting online seems to be healthy when the online activity is moderate and complements interactions offline,” said one of the study authors, William Hobbs, in a press release. Hobbs, who worked on the study as a UC San Diego doctoral student in political science and is now a postdoctoral fellow at Northeastern University, said, “It is only on the extreme end, spending a lot of time online with little evidence of being connected to people otherwise, that we see a negative association.”

Senior author James Fowler, professor of political science in the UC San Diego Division of Social Sciences and of global public health in the UC San Diego School of Medicine, said, “Happily, for almost all Facebook users, what we found is balanced use and a lower risk of mortality.”

The researchers found that the average Facebook user is about 12 percent less likely to die than someone who doesn't use the site. But that's the researchers' crudest measure, they note, and may be due to social or economic differences between the user and non-user groups.

Among people who do use Facebook, the researchers looked at numbers of friends, numbers of photos and status updates, numbers of wall posts sent and messages sent, to see if people who were more active lived longer. 

People with average or large social networks, in the top 50 to 30 percent, lived longer than those in the lowest 10 percent ― a finding consistent with classic studies of offline relationships and longevity.

Those on Facebook with highest levels of offline social integration (measured by posting more photos, which suggests face-to-face social activity) had the greatest longevity. Online-only social interactions, like writing wall posts and messages, showed a nonlinear relationship: Moderate levels were associated with the lowest mortality.

Facebook users who accepted the most friend requests lived the longest, the study found.

One guy who needs no convincing that Facebook may be a life-saver is Chris Thomas from Pittsburgh. Thomas fell out of his wheelchair and was slipping in and out of consciousness. He managed to reach his smartphone, which had been left open to the Facebook app, and he posted this somewhat incoherent message:




The response was rapid as his friends around the country dropped whatever they were doing and leapt into action. Out-of-state friends contacted in-state ones. In some cases, they didn't know each other personally and all they had in common was Thomas.

As he lay on the floor helpless, he saw his phone beeping and a text appeared. His friend Brad had summoned the EMT; help was coming.


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When Should You Forgive Your Partner?

By Amie M. Gordon

Your partner just made fun of you in front of your friends. Now, you have to decide how to respond. Should you shrug it off and let it go, or really let them have it when you have a moment alone together?

On one hand, forgiving your partner is a nice gesture that might encourage caring and respect between you two. On the other hand, not getting angry might let your partner think they have carte blanche to do as they please. So what is the right course of action?


Recent research suggests that it depends on your partner's personality--in particular, whether they exhibit a trait known as agreeableness.

People high in agreeableness prioritize their relationships over their own needs, and are more cooperative and concerned with social norms; people low in agreeableness are more focused on pursuing their own self-interests.

Across four different studies, the researchers found that more agreeable people feel a strong need to respond in kind when they are forgiven, which means not repeating the behavior that bothered or upset their partner -- such as smoking, flirting, neglecting chores, or overspending. Why? The research provides some evidence that agreeable people feel a sense of obligation when they're forgiven, a kind of moral contract: You forgave me, so I'll reciprocate by treating you well.

In contrast, the researchers found that people who are less agreeable are actually more likely to engage in similar transgressions after receiving forgiveness. What is going on in their minds? They tend to believe that anger is the appropriate response to wrongdoing, but a partner providing forgiveness is not a very angry partner. These people seem to be thinking, "You didn't get mad at me, so you must not care that much about what I just did--so I'm going to go ahead and keep doing it."

So what are you to do after your partner hurts or offends you?

This research identifies a problem but doesn't provide a solution. However, simply recognizing how you and your partner might have different responses and expectations following transgressions can be a launching point for a conversation about how best to deal with them.

To do this, you can begin by identifying whether you and your partner have similar or different personalities. Are you both forgiving? Both easy to anger? If so, you are well-matched to deal with transgressions in your relationship. But if not, you may often feel unsatisfied or unheard.

If you are someone who believes that forgiveness is the right way to respond when someone you care about hurts you, but your partner doesn't, then you might be confused as to why your partner seems to ignore your forgiveness. You might also feel hurt or confused when your partner gets angry at you after you mess up, when you were expecting forgiveness.

If you are someone who sees anger as the appropriate response, and your partner doesn't get angered by something you do wrong, you'll likely feel the transgression didn't really matter to them. You might even wonder how much they really care about your relationship. You might also feel confused when your partner seems to overreact to your anger and get angry yourself when your partner continues to transgress in the future. (Agreeable people may see anger as a violation of social norms, and so anger expressed towards them could actually backfire, making them less motivated to fix their behavior in the future.)

Recognizing these differences and having a frank conversation about what anger and forgiveness mean to each of you and whether they motivate you to behave better might help illuminate the best path forward.

Although this research suggests that forgiveness may sometimes be less likely to motivate behavior change, there are other reasons to practice forgiveness. For example, it has been linked with relationship satisfaction, as well as psychological and physical health. So when choosing whether to forgive or get angry, it's important to think over all the potential benefits and burdens of each course of action.

If the transgression is small, might it still be better to forgive a less agreeable partner, particularly if forgiveness is in your nature? And if people do choose to get angry, are there long-term costs for their relationships? Is the best approach for both partners to adopt the same style? I hope future research will provide us with answers to these lingering questions.

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Why Tuberculosis Is So Difficult to Eradicate

There is a vaccination that prevents it.

There are drugs that can kill it.

So, why has tuberculosis been so difficult to eradicate in our modern world?

Numbers released this month by the World Health Organization (WHO) show how pervasive tuberculosis (TB) still is.

The health agency reports that in 2015 there were more than 10 million new cases of TB worldwide.

Almost 6 million of those cases were men and 3.5 million were women. Another 1 million were children. People with HIV accounted for 1.2 million of the new TB cases.

In addition, there were 580,000 new cases of drug resistant TB.

About 1.8 million people died in 2015 from the infectious disease that primarily attacks the lungs.

In the United States, 9,563 cases of TB were reported in 2015. More than 500 people in the United States die each year of the disease.

After decades of decline, the incidence of TB has leveled off in the past few years. A major reason is the emergence of the drug resistant strains.

WHO officials say they are behind in their campaign goal, started in 2014, to reduce TB cases by 80 percent and reduce TB deaths by 90 percent by 2030.

Early diagnosis crucial

TB as an organism is a tough customer.

Jeffrey D. Cirillo, Ph.D., a professor at the Texas A&M College of Medicine, says it doesn't take much of a foothold for tuberculosis to get going.

Most pathogens require hundreds, even thousands, of organisms for the disease to start growing inside the human body.

Tuberculosis requires 10 or fewer.

"It is one of the most successful pathogens in history," Cirillo told Healthline. "It's very, very effective once it gets in."

TB is also a slow-growing disease.

It can be inside a person for several months or even a year or two before symptoms, such as severe coughing, begin to show up.

"It can take a long time to manifest," Dr. Dana J. Hawkinson, an internal medicine and infectious disease specialist at The University of Kansas Hospital, told Healthline.

In addition, it can be several months after the initial infection before the disease will be evident in lab tests.

Meanwhile, a person, unaware they are infected, can pass the airborne disease along to others without knowing it.

Even people who don't develop symptoms can infect others. It's estimated that one-third of the world's population carries this "latent tuberculosis."

"The disease has the ability to hide under our radar," said Cirillo.

Cirillo said the most commonly used diagnostic lab test is simple and low-tech, so it can be used in a lot of countries.

However, many times it takes one to two weeks to get results.

In the United States, there are tests that produce results the same day.

Cirillo notes that both tests can increase the lapse time between infection and treatment.

Cirillo has been working on a new test called TB REaD. It targets an enzyme produced by the bacteria that cause TB.

The test makes this enzyme glow when it is spotted in a saliva or mucus sample.

The results can be produced in 10 minutes, so a patient can be given medication before they leave the doctor's office.

"We want to complete the diagnosis while the patient is still there," said Cirillo.

Vaccine and treatments

Once the disease has been identified, it needs to be treated.

That is easier said than done.

First, access to treatment can be difficult in some developing countries.

In addition, people with TB need to take daily medication for six to nine months. Sometimes, they stop taking the drugs when they start to feel better.

That's when a drug resistant strain can develop.

In addition, treatment can be tricky to administer to someone with HIV and TB.

"There are a lot of factors at play here," said Hawkinson.

There is a vaccine available, but there are some limitations.

Hawkinson said the inoculation is not used in the United States because it can affect the ability to screen someone for latent TB.

Cirillo added the vaccination doesn't work all that well in adults, although it is efficient in infants.

That makes it difficult in countries such as India, which currently has more than a quarter of the world's TB infections, to reduce the spread of the disease among adults.

Both medical experts agree that education about the disease, better access to resources, more efficient diagnostic tests, and shorter-term treatments are needed to combat TB.

"It is definitely a health hazard," said Hawkinson.

By David Mills

The original article was published on

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The 'Face Of Mental Illness' Campaign Proves It's A Condition, Not A Halloween Costume

Mental illness is a health condition, not a Halloween costume

And this Halloween, social media users are spreading the word. Mental health advocates are taking selfies with the hashtag #FaceOfMentalIllness to gently remind everyone that mental illness is not a horror show or a scene to be frightened or ashamed by. 

“Mental illness is nothing to make fun of, or use as a frightening attraction,”Jennifer Marshall, cofounder and executive director of the advocacy community This Is My Brave, told The Mighty. “Doing so only reinforces the social discrimination that still surrounds mental illness. We wanted to show the world the true face of mental illness - everyday people who you know and love.”

Check out all the people below who live with mental illness every day. They are your friends, coworkers, family, neighbors and acquaintances. 

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